Fostering demand-oriented service delivery? A historical reconstruction of first experiences with ?private funding, public delivery? extension in Benin


  • Clément Gbêhi
  • Cees Leeuwis


agricultural extension, Benin, new technology, private sector, development projects


This paper examines newly emerging patterns of agricultural extension in the context of wider liberalization of agricultural input supply, marketing and credit provision in Benin. It assesses whether the promises of privatisation were met in the case of the Sasakawa Global 2000 project. Thus, it assesses the extent to which service delivery became demand-orientated, flexible and effective in linking of new technology with complementary institutional designs. In order to gain insight in the dynamics through which such outcomes may be realized, the study zooms in on the process through which the project evolved. It is demonstrated that the PSG 2000 Bénin project did not contribute much to realizing the promises and expectations of privatized service delivery. An important conclusion is that whether services become ?demand-oriented? or not does not primarily depend on the formal funding and delivery arrangement, but rather on the quality of the process in which demand and supply are articulated and matched. This contradicts with the policy assumptions underlying privatization programmes.


Adjei-Nsiah, S., Leeuwis, C., Sakyi-Dawson, O., Giller, K.E., and Kuyper, T.W., 2007. Exploring diversity among farmers for orienting inter-disciplinary action research on cropping system management in Wenchi, Ghana: the significance of time horizons. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 5 (2?3), 176?194.
Agbo, V., 1995. Rôle des représentations du surnaturel dans la connaissance endogène et leur influence sur les résultats de la production agricole. Série d?Economie et de Sociologie rurale. FSA/UNB.
Alex, G., Byerlee, D., Helene-Collion, M., and Rivera, W., 2004. Extension and rural development: converting views on institutional approaches? Agricultural and Rural Development Discussion Paper #4. ARD-World Bank.
Alex, G., Zijp, W., and Byerlee, D., 2002. Rural extension and advisory services: new directions. Rural Development Strategy Paper #9. ARD-World Bank.
Aholou, E. and Hounyovi, A., 1999. Etude sur la vulgarisation des technologies de gestion de la fertilité des sols. RAMR/INRAB/DIFOV/MDR. Rapport d?étude.
Bardhan, P.K., 2000. Understanding underdevelopment: challenges for institutional economics from the point of view of poor countries. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 156 (1), 216?235.
Bastiaensen, J., De Herdt, T., and Vaessen, J., 2002. Poverty, institutions and interventions: a framework for an institutional analysis of poverty and local anti-poverty interventions.Working paper.
Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp.
Benor, D., and Baxter, M., 1984. Training and visit extension. Washington, DC: World Bank. Beynon, J. with Akroyd, S., Duncan, A., and Jones, S., 1998. Financing the future: options for agricultural research and extension in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford Policy Management, Oxford, UK.
Biaou, G., 1997. Système d?exploitation et cycle de vie. In: J. Daane, M. Breusers and E. Frederiks, eds. Dynamique paysanne sur le Plateau Adja du Bénin. Paris: Kartala, 49?78.
Boon, A. Mongbo, R., Vodouhè, S., and Cino, B., 1997. Intervention et participation paysanne. In: J. Daane, M. Breusers and E. Frederiks, eds. Dynamique paysanne sur le Plateau Adja du Bénin. Paris: Kartala, 265?287.
Boon, W.P.C., Moors, E.H.M., Kuhlmann, S., and Smits, R.E.H.M., 2008. Demands articulation in intermediary organizations: the case of orphan drugs in the Netherlands. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 75 (5), 644?671.
Bukenya, C., 2010. Meeting farmer demand? An assessment of extension reform in Uganda. Unpublished PhD thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University.
Carney, D., 1998. Changing public and private role in agricultural service provision. London, UK: Overseas Development Institute.
Chambers, R., 1997. Whose reality counts? Putting the last first. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
Clark, N., Hall, A., Sulaiman, R., and Naik, G., 2003. Research as capacity building: the case of an NGO facilitated post-harvest innovation system for the Himalayan hills. World Development, 31(11), 1845?1865.
Dormon, E., 2006. From a technology focus to innovation development: the management of cocoa pest and disease in Ghana. Unpublished PhD thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University.
FAO, 2001. Agricultural and rural extension worldwide: options for institutional reform in the developing countries. Rome: FAO.
Floquet, A., 1994. Dynamique de l?intensification des exploitations au sud du Benin et innovations endogènes. Un défi pour la recherche agronomique. Dissertation. Stuttgart, University of Hohenheim.
Galiba, M., 1994. The Sasakawa Global 2000 Project in Benin and Togo. In: W.E. Swegle, ed. Developing African agriculture: new initiatives for international cooperation. Mexico, DF: SAA/SG 2000/CASIN, 37?51.
Garforth, C., 2004. Introduction. In: W. Rivera and G. Alex, eds. Demand driven approaches to agriculture extension: case studies of international initiatives. The World Bank.
Geels, F.W., 2002. Understanding the dynamics of technological transitions: a co-evolutionary and socio-technical analysis. Enschede: Twente University Press.
Geels, F.W., 2004. From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory. Research Policy, 33 (6?7), 897?920.
Gléhouénou, B., 1996. La propagation de l?innovation en milieu rural: l?expérience de quatre villages laboratoire au Sud-Bénin. Unpublished doctoral thesis in sociology. Université Rabelais, Tours.
Goovaerts, P., Gasser, M., and Inbal, A.B., 2005. Demand-driven approaches to livelihood support in post-war contexts. Joint ILO?World Bank Study, Paper 29, October.
Hall, A., 2006. Public private sector partnerships in agricultural system of innovation: concepts and challenges. UNU-Merit Working Paper 2006-002, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Hall, A., et al., 2001.Why research partnerships really matter: innovation theory, institutional arrangements and implications for developing new technology for the poor. World Development, 29 (5), 783?797.
Heemskerk, W., et al., 2003. A guide to demand-driven agricultural research. The client-oriented research management approach. Amsterdam: KIT.
Hounkonnou, D., 2001. Listen to the cradle: building from local dynamics for African renaissance: case studies in rural areas in Benin, Burkina Faso and Ghana. Unpublished PhD thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University.
Howells, J., 2006. Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation. Research Policy, 35, 715?728.
Katz, E. [with contributions by A. Barandun], 2002. Innovative approaches to financing extension for agricultural and natural resource management ? conceptual considerations and analysis of experience. LBL, Swiss Center for Agricultural Extension, Lindau.
Kidd, A.D., Lamers, J.P.A., Ficarelli, P.P., and Hoffmann, V., 2000. Privatising agricultural extension: caveat emptor. Journal of Rural Studies, 16, 95?102.
Klerkx, L.W.A. and Leeuwis, C., 2008a. Institutionalizing end-user demand steering in agricultural R&D: farmer levy funding of R&D in the Netherlands. Research Policy, 37 (3), 460?472.
Klerkx, L. and Leeuwis, C., 2008b. Balancing multiple interests: embedding innovation intermediation in the agricultural knowledge infrastructure. Technovation, 28 (6), 364?378.
Klerkx, L., De Grip, K., and Leeuwis, C., 2006. Hands off but strings attached: the contradictions of policy-induced demand-driven agricultural extension. Agricultural and Human Values, 23, 189?204.
Leeuwis, C., 2000a. Learning to be sustainable. Does the Dutch agrarian knowledge market fail? The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 7, 79?92.
Leeuwis, C., 2000b. Reconceptualizing participation for sustainable rural development: towards a negotiation approach. Development and Change, 31, 931?959.
Leeuwis, C., with contributions from van den Ban, A., 2004. Communication for rural innovation. Rethinking agricultural extension. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Long, N. and Van der Ploeg, J.D., 1989. Demythologising planned intervention. Sociologia Ruralis, 29, 226?249.
Loorbach, D., 2007. Complexity, society and governance. In: D. Loorbach. Transition management: new mode of governance for sustainable development. Unpublished PhD thesis. Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
MDR, 1992. Projet Sasakawa Global 2000. Rapport annuel d?activité 1990?1991. Ministère du Développement Rural, Cotonou, Bénin.
MDR, 1993. Projet de restructuration des services agricoles. Rapport de la Mission d?évaluation à mi-parcours et de définition du système dé Suivi et évaluation. MDR, ADE, Cotonou, Bénin.
MDR, 1996. Sasakawa Global 2000 Project. Activities assessment report 1989?1995. Ministère du Développement Rural, Cotonou, Bénin.
MDR, 1997. Projet Sasakawa Global 2000. Rapport annuel d?activité. Ministère du Développement Rural, Cotonou, Bénin.
Mongbo, R., 2000. Disponibilité en terres et régime fonciers en milieu rural au Sud-Bénin: diagnostic d?un phénomène complexe à l?aide d?une approche centrée sur les acteurs. In: P.L. Delville, C.
Toulmin, and S. Traore, eds. Gérer le foncier rural en Afrique de l?Ouest: dynamiques foncières et interventions publiques. Khartala: URED.
Montaldi,M., 1992. Projet d?appui à la restructuration des institutions de développement rural. Projet PNUD/FAO BEN/090/007. Rapport des mission, Cotonou, Bénin.
Nubukpo, K., and Galiba, M., 1999. Agricultural intensification in West Africa: insights from Sasakawa Global 2000?s experience. Paper presented at the Workshop on ?Agricultural Transformation?, 27?30 June, Nairobi, Kenya.
Purcell, D.L., and Anderson, J.R., 1997. Agricultural extension and research: achievements and problems in national systems. World Bank Operation Evaluation Study. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Pretty, J.N., Guijt, I., Thompson, J., and Scoones, I., 1995. Participatory learning and action. A trainer?s guide. London: IIED.
PSG 2000 Bénin, 1993. Bénin 1992 Progress report Sasakawa Global 2000 Bénin. Ministère du Développement Rural, Cotonou, Bénin.
PSG 2000 Bénin, 1996. Bénin 1992?1996 Progress report Sasakawa Global 2000 Bénin. Ministère du Développement Rural, Cotonou, Bénin.
Rivera, W.M., and Zijp, W., 2002. Contracting for agricultural extension: international case studies and emerging practices. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Rivera,W.M., and Alex, G., 2004. Demand-driven approaches to agricultural extension. Case studies of international initiatives. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Sanginga, P.C., et al., 2008. Innovation Africa: enriching farmers? livelihoods. London: Earthscan.
SG 2000, 1993. The Sasakawa Global 2000 project in Benin and Togo. E10SAS, MAEP.
Sogbohossou, C.A., Fassassi, R., and Wennink, B., 2005. Public and private funding of agricultural extension in Bénin. In: W. Heemskerk and B. Wennink, eds. Stakeholder-driven funding mechanisms for agricultural innovation. Case studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin 373, KIT. Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Smits, R., 2002. Innovation studies in the 21st century: questions from a user?s perspectives. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 69 (9), 861?883.
Sulaiman, V.R. and van den Ban, A.W., 2003. Funding and delivering agricultural extension in India. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 10 (1), 21?29.
Swanson, E.B. and Samy, M.M., 2002. Developing an extension partnership among public, private and non-governmental organisations. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 9 (1), 5?11.
Tittonell, P., et al., 2005. Exploring diversity in soil fertility management of small-holder farms in Western Kenya. I. Heterogeneity at region and farm scale. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 110, 149?165.
Tossou, R., 1996. La professionnalisation de la vulgarisation au Bénin. In: T. Bierschenk, P-Y. Le Meur andM. von Oppen, eds. Institutions and technologies for rural development in West Africa. Germany: Margraf Verlag Weikersheim, 499?512.
Tripp, R., 1993. Invisible hands, indigenous knowledge and inevitable fads: challenges to public sector agricultural research in Ghana. World Development, 21 (1), 2003?2016.
Umali, D.L., and Schwarz, L., 1994. Public and private agricultural extension: beyond traditional boundaries. World Bank Technical Paper 247. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Uphoff, N., 1993. Local institutions and participation for sustainable development. London: IIED.
Van den Ban, A.W., 1997. Privatisation de la vulgarisation au Bénin. Acte de séminaire, Cotonou, Bénin.
Van den Ban, A.W., and Mkwawa, D.S., 1997. Towards a participatory and demand-driven training and visits (T & V) agricultural extension system: a case of Tanzania. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 4 (1), 117?123.
Van der Ploeg, J.D., 1990. Labor, markets and agricultural production. Boulder, CO:Westview Press.
Van der Meulen, B., Nevad, M., and Braun, D., 2005. Intermediaries organization and processes: theory and research issues. Position paper for the PRIME workshop, 6?7 October, Enschede, the Netherlands.
Van Veldhuizen, L.,Waters-Bayer, A., and De Zeeuw, H., 1997. Developing technology with farmers. A trainer?s guide for participatory learning. London: Zed Books.
Vissoh, P.V., Allagbe, M., Dagbénonbakin, G., and Galiba, M., 1997. Vulgarisation du pois mascate dans le cadre de la collaboration institutionnelle au Bénin. In: T. Bierschenk, P.-Y. Le Meur and
M. von Oppen, eds. Institutions and technologies for rural development in West Africa. Germany: Margraf Verlag, 521?529.
Vodouhè, S., 1996. Making rural development work: cultural hybridization of farmers? organizations. Unpublished PhD thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University.
Von de Luhe, N., 1991. Transfer of technology or barter trade? The rural extension service in the Atlantique Province of Benin as a market for negotiating resources. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 30 (3), 248?263.
von Pischke, J.D., 2000. FENACREP ? Bénin: Summary of consulting work. Final draft. Cotonou, Bénin.
Wennink, B., Dagbénonbakin, G., and Agossou, V., 2000. Cotton farming in northern Benin and mixed farming in southern Benin. In: A. Budelman and T. Defoer, eds. PLAR and resource flow analysis in practice: case studies from Benin, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali and Tanzania. Amsterdam: KIT.
World Bank, 1992. Projet de restructuration des services agricoles ? rapport d?évaluation No. 9442-BEN, 3 June.
World Bank, 2003. Agricultural services restructuring project: project performance assessment report. Sector and Thematic Evaluation Group, Operations Evaluation Department.World Bank.
Zijp,W., 1998. Unleashing the potential. Changing the way theWorld Bank thinks about and support agricultural extension. Discussion paper. Washington, DC: World Bank.